19
July
2019

Better sleep helps students to improve final exam performance

first_img Source:https://www.baylor.edu/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Dec 3 2018Students given extra points if they met “The 8-hour Challenge” — averaging eight hours of sleep for five nights during final exams week — did better than those who snubbed (or flubbed) the incentive, according to Baylor University research.”Better sleep helped rather than harmed final exam performance, which is contrary to most college students’ perceptions that they have to sacrifice either studying or sleeping. And you don’t have to be an ‘A’ student or have detailed education on sleep for this to work,” said Michael Scullin, Ph.D., director of Baylor’s Sleep Neuroscience and Cognition Laboratory and assistant professor of psychology and neuroscience in Baylor’s College of Arts & Sciences.While students who successfully met the sleep challenge received extra points, the “mini-incentive” was not included in the analysis of how well they performed on the finals, stressed Elise King, assistant professor of interior design in Baylor’s Robbins College of Health and Human Sciences.”They didn’t just perform well because they received extra points,” she said. “Students know that sacrificing sleep to complete school work is not a healthy choice, but they assume they don’t have a choice, often remarking that there aren’t enough hours in the day for coursework, extracurriculars, jobs, etc. “This removes that excuse.”Research participants included undergraduate interior design students and students in upper-level psychology and neuroscience classes. While the psychology classes emphasized education about sleep, the interior design students did not receive any formal training in sleep. Those who opted to take the challenge wore wristband sleep-monitoring devices for five days to ensure accurate study results.”The students didn’t need the extra credit to perform better, and they weren’t really better students from the get-go,” Scullin said. “If you statistically correct for whether a student was an A, B, C, or D student before their final exam, sleeping 8 hours was associated with a four-point grade boost — even prior to applying extra credit.”The collaborative interior design study — “The 8-Hour Challenge: Incentivizing Sleep During End-of-Term Assessments — was published in the Journal of Interior Design. Scullin’s study of psychology students — “The 8-Hour Sleep Challenge During Final Exams Week” — was published in Teaching of Psychology.Poor sleep is common during finals as students cut back on sleep, deal with more stress, use more caffeine and are exposed to more bright light, all of which may disrupt sleep. Fewer than 10 percent of undergraduates maintain the recommended average of 8 hours a night or even the recommended minimum of 7 hours, previous research shows.But with incentives, “we can potentially completely reverse the proportion of students meeting minimum sleep recommendations — 7 hours a night — from fewer than 15 percent up to 90 percent,” Scullin said. “Half of students can even meet optimal sleep recommendations of 8 to 9 hours.”PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS In the study of psychology students, 34 students in two undergraduate courses could earn extra credit if they averaged 8 hours of sleep during final exams week or at least improved upon their sleep from earlier in the semester.Related StoriesSleep decline in one’s 50s, 60s increases risk of Alzheimer’s diseaseSleep quality and fatigue among women with premature ovarian insufficiencyI’m a CPAP dropout: Why many lose sleep over apnea treatmentThe 24 who opted to take the challenge averaged 8.5 hours of sleep, with 17 meeting the goal. On the final exam, students who slept more than 8 hours nightly performed better than those who opted out or slept less than 7.9 hours. (The incentive was 8 points — the equivalent of 1 percent of a student’s overall class grade.)”It’s worth noting that one student who had a D-plus grade before the final but slept more than 8 hours a week during finals week, remarked that it was the ‘first time my brain worked while taking an exam,'” Scullin said.INTERIOR DESIGN STUDENTSIn the interior design study challenge, students earned credit (10 points on a 200-point project) if they averaged 8 or more hours a night but received no grade change if they averaged 7 to 7.9 hours a night.Of the 27 students enrolled in the program, 22 attempted the challenge. Compared with a group of 22 students who did not try for the extra points, very few (9 percent) averaged 8 hours or even 7 hours (14 percent).The 8 hour challenge increased the percentage of 8? and 7?hour sleepers to 59 percent and 86 percent respectively. Students who took part in the challenge slept an average of 98 minutes more per night compared to students who were not offered the incentive but were monitored.”Critically, the additional sleep did not come at a cost to project performance,” King said. “Students who showed more consistent sleep performed better than those who had less consistent sleep. And students who achieved the challenge performed as well or better than those who did not take the challenge.”In a study of sleep and creativity done in 2017, King and Scullin found that interior design students with highly variable sleep habits — cycling between “all-nighters” and “catch-up” nights — had decreased cognition in attention and creativity, especially with major projects. Design students customarily complete finals projects rather than final exams.”Whether or not they ‘pull an all-nighter,’ when students cut their sleep, the effects are obvious,” King said. “They have trouble paying attention during class, and they aren’t as productive during studio time.”She noted that there is a cultural acceptability — at least in design professions — related to sleep deprivation, thanks in part to the notion of the “tortured artist” who finds inspiration in the wee hours.”Some fields might find it unprofessional, but for many years, in design, sacrificing sleep was viewed as a rite of passage. That’s something we’re trying to change,” King said. “Even during stressful deadline weeks, students can maintain healthy sleep habits.””To be successful at the challenge, students need to manage their time better during the day. Getting more sleep at night then allows them to be more efficient the next day,” Scullin said. “By training students in their first year of college, if not earlier, that they can sleep well during finals week without sacrificing performance, we may help to resolve the ‘global sleep epidemic’ that plagues students in America and abroad.”last_img read more

18
July
2019

Study suggests HLD200 could provide novel more flexible alternative to treating ADHD

first_img Source:https://home.liebertpub.com/news/can-delayed-extended-release-methylphenidate-allow-for-once-daily-evening-dosing-in-adhd/3532 Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Apr 2 2019A new three-part study showed that a delayed-release, extended-release form of methylphenidate could be given to adults in the evening with or without food and would not exert any clinically meaningful effect for at least 10 hours after administration. These positive findings suggest that HLD200 could provide a novel and more flexible alternative to treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children compared to the currently used immediate-release methylphenidate. The design of each study and the intriguing results are reported in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.Related StoriesChaos in the house and asthma in children – the connectionResearchers identify gene mutations linked to leukemia in children with Down’s syndromeNew therapeutic food boosts key growth-promoting gut microbes in malnourished childrenThe article is entitled “Pharmacokinetics of HLD200, a Delayed-Release and Extended-Release Methylphenidate: Evaluation of Dose Proportionality, Food Effect, Multiple-Dose Modeling, and Comparative Bioavailability with Immediate-Release Methylphenidate in Healthy Adults.” Coauthors Bev Incledon, PhD, Ironshore Pharmaceuticals & Development, Inc., (Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands) and colleagues from University of Maryland School of Pharmacy (Baltimore, MD) and Highland Therapeutics, Inc. (Toronto, Canada) set up a series of studies to be able to evaluate different doses of HLD200, the potential impact of taking the drug in a fasted state or following a high-fat evening meal, and the effects, if any, of a low-fat versus a medium-fat breakfast. The authors also evaluated different dosing strategies.”For many parents whose children with ADHD are very restless and impulsive from the moment they awake, mornings are very difficult before their first dose of medicine starts to work. This new formulation may potentially correct these early morning problems,” says Harold S. Koplewicz, MD, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology and President of the Child Mind Institute in New York.last_img read more

18
July
2019

Meals that include fresh avocado can suppress hunger and increase satisfaction study

first_img Source:https://web.iit.edu/mediaroom/press-releases/2019/may/07/avocados-substitution-carbohydrates-can-suppress-hunger-without Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)May 8 2019A new study released by the Center for Nutrition Research at Illinois Institute of Technology suggests that meals that include fresh avocado as a substitute for refined carbohydrates can significantly suppress hunger and increase meal satisfaction in overweight and obese adults.As rates of obesity in the United States continue to rise, the findings from Illinois Tech suggest that simple dietary changes can have an important impact on managing hunger and aiding metabolic control.The new research, published in the peer-reviewed journal Nutrients, assessed the underlying physiological effects of including whole and half fresh Hass avocados on hunger, fullness, and how satisfied subjects felt over a six-hour period. Researchers evaluated these effects in 31 overweight and obese adults in a randomized three-arm crossover clinical trial. These dietary changes were also shown to limit insulin and blood glucose excursions, further reducing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease by adding healthy fats and fibers into a regular daily diet.Related StoriesOlympus Europe and Cytosurge join hands to accelerate drug development, single cell researchAMSBIO offers new, best-in-class CAR-T cell range for research and immunotherapyUranium toxicity might have caused obesity and diabetes in Kuwait, finds new study”For years, fats have been targeted as the main cause of obesity, and now carbohydrates have come under scrutiny for their role in appetite regulation and weight control,” said Britt Burton-Freeman, Ph.D., director of the Center for Nutrition Research at Illinois Tech. “There is no ‘one size fits all’ solution when it comes to optimal meal composition for managing appetite. However, understanding the relationship between food chemistry and its physiological effects in different populations can reveal opportunities for addressing appetite control and reducing rates of obesity, putting us a step closer to personalized dietary recommendations.”The research found that meals including avocado not only resulted in a significant reduction in hunger and an increase in how satisfied participants felt, but also found that an intestinal hormone called PYY was an important messenger of the physiological response.last_img read more

18
July
2019

Bariatric surgery can be safe effective treatment for teenagers with obesity

first_imgThe findings are consistent with those of a separate study, published May 16 in the New England Journal of Medicine.Obesity and its related conditions, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, are increasing worldwide in adults and children, according to the study. Excess weight and obesity in adolescents cost more than $14 billion per year. Meanwhile, type 2 diabetes causes more severe insulin deficiency and other complications in youths than in adults and the steps being taken to avoid obesity or prevent its complications are often ineffective.Although bariatric surgery requires lifelong follow-up and monitoring of nutritional deficiencies, it is considered effective for severe obesity in adults, leading to long-term improvement or remission in obesity-related diabetes and other disorders, sustained weight loss and an improved quality of life.Related StoriesTen-fold rise in tongue-tie surgery for newborns ‘without any real strong data’Surgery can be beneficial for one type of primary central nervous system lymphomaPenis enlargement surgery ineffective and potentially dangerousStudies of bariatric surgery in adolescents, although scarce, show it is associated with remission of type 2 diabetes, abnormal kidney function and other complications of obesity, and that resulting nutritional deficiencies can be corrected with dietary supplements.When considering bariatric surgery for teenagers, the researchers recommend pediatricians follow the guidelines published by the Endocrine Society. They recommend the procedure only for patients who have neared the end of puberty and are close to their final adult height; who have extreme obesity and related complications that persist despite the patient’s compliance with a formal program of lifestyle modification; and who demonstrate the ability to follow a regimen of healthy eating and living habits.The researchers also follow the Endocrine Society in saying bariatric surgery is not recommended for patients who have not mastered healthy eating and living habits or who have unresolved substance abuse, eating or psychiatric disorders.Source:Rutgers UniversityJournal reference:Khattab, A & Sperling, M.A. (2019) Obesity in Adolescents and Youth: The Case for and against Bariatric Surgery. The Journal of Pediatrics. doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.11.058 Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)May 28 2019Pediatricians are often reluctant to recommend bariatric surgery for teenagers, but a Rutgers-led study concludes it is a justifiable treatment for adolescents with persistent extreme obesity if they can maintain a healthy lifestyle afterward.The researchers reviewed studies on bariatric surgery in adolescents and adults in their report in The Journal of Pediatrics. If we look at obesity as a disease with the real possibility of eventual organ system failure and special health concerns for adolescents, we need to ask whether health care practitioners are doing enough to manage it. The objective evidence shows that, under the right circumstances and with the right patients, bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for adolescents with obesity.”Lead author Ahmed Khattab, physician at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School’s Division of Pediatric Endocrinologylast_img read more

18
July
2019

FDA approves first vaccine for prevention of dengue disease in endemic regions

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 6 2019The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced today the approval of Dengvaxia, the first vaccine approved for the prevention of dengue disease caused by all dengue virus serotypes (1, 2, 3 and 4) in people ages 9 through 16 who have laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection and who live in endemic areas. Dengue is endemic in the U.S. territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Dengue disease is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world and global incidence has increased in recent decades. The FDA is committed to working proactively with our partners at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as international partners, including the World Health Organization, to combat public health threats, including through facilitating the development and availability of medical products to address emerging infectious diseases. While there is no cure for dengue disease, today’s approval is an important step toward helping to reduce the impact of this virus in endemic regions of the United States.”Anna Abram, FDA deputy commissioner for policy, legislation, and international affairs Related StoriesHPV vaccine has led to a dramatic reduction in cervical cancer rates, but Africa is lagging behindNew shingles vaccine reduces outbreaks of painful rash among stem cell transplant patients$3.1 million NIH funding awarded to develop universal flu vaccineThe safety and effectiveness of the vaccine was determined in three randomized, placebo-controlled studies involving approximately 35,000 individuals in dengue-endemic areas, including Puerto Rico, Latin America and the Asia Pacific region. The vaccine was determined to be approximately 76 percent effective in preventing symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed dengue disease in individuals 9 through 16 years of age who previously had laboratory-confirmed dengue disease. Dengvaxia has already been approved in 19 countries and the European Union.The most commonly reported side effects by those who received Dengvaxia were headache, muscle pain, joint pain, fatigue, injection site pain and low-grade fever. The frequency of side effects was similar across Dengvaxia and placebo recipients and tended to decrease after each subsequent dose of the vaccine.Dengvaxia is not approved for use in individuals not previously infected by any dengue virus serotype or for whom this information is unknown. This is because in people who have not been infected with dengue virus, Dengvaxia appears to act like a first dengue infection – without actually infecting the person with wild-type dengue virus – such that a subsequent infection can result in severe dengue disease.Therefore, health care professionals should evaluate individuals for prior dengue infection to avoid vaccinating individuals who have not been previously infected by dengue virus. This can be assessed through a medical record of a previous laboratory-confirmed dengue infection or through serological testing (tests using blood samples from the patient) prior to vaccination.Dengvaxia is a live, attenuated vaccine that is administered as three separate injections, with the initial dose followed by two additional shots given six and twelve months later.The FDA granted this application Priority Review and a Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher under a program intended to encourage development of new drugs and biologics for the prevention and treatment of certain tropical diseases. The approval was granted to Sanofi Pasteur. The CDC estimates more than one-third of the world’s population is living in areas at risk for infection by dengue virus which causes dengue fever, a leading cause of illness among people living in the tropics and subtropics. The first infection with dengue virus typically results in either no symptoms or a mild illness that can be mistaken for the flu or another viral infection. A subsequent infection can lead to severe dengue, including dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), a more severe form of the disease that can be fatal. Symptoms may include stomach pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding, confusion and difficulty breathing. Approximately 95 percent of all severe/hospitalized cases of dengue are associated with second dengue virus infection. Because there are no specific drugs approved for the treatment of dengue disease, care is limited to the management of symptoms.Each year, an estimated 400 million dengue virus infections occur globally according to the CDC. Of these, approximately 500,000 cases develop into DHF, which contributes to about 20,000 deaths, primarily among children. Although dengue cases are rare in the continental U.S., the disease is regularly found in American Samoa, Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as Latin America, Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands.center_img Infection by one type of dengue virus usually provides immunity against that specific serotype, but a subsequent infection by any of the other three serotypes of the virus increases the risk of developing severe dengue disease, which may lead to hospitalization or even death. As the second infection with dengue is often much more severe than the first, the FDA’s approval of this vaccine will help protect people previously infected with dengue virus from subsequent development of dengue disease.”Peter Marks, M.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Source:U.S. Food and Drug Administrationlast_img read more

18
July
2019

PETCT imaging spots cardiovascular disease risk factors in OSA patients

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 25 2019Research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging’s 2019 Annual Meeting draws a strong link between severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and impaired coronary flow reserve, which is an early sign of the heart disease atherosclerosis. Using 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), researchers were able to noninvasively evaluate coronary microvascular function in OSA patients and use their findings to predict cardiovascular disease risk.Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when a person’s airway is blocked while sleeping, which causes intermittent pauses in breathing. According to the American Sleep Apnea Association, an estimated 22 million Americans suffer from sleep apnea, which is increasingly recognized as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. Left untreated, OSA can lead to high blood pressure, stroke, chronic heart failure and other cardiovascular problems.Related StoriesMore than 936 million people have sleep apnea, ResMed-led analysis revealsI’m a CPAP dropout: Why many lose sleep over apnea treatmentProbiotic containing common gut bacterium could halve cardiovascular disease ratesTo evaluate the cardiovascular disease risk factors in OSA patients, researchers conducted 13N-ammonia PET/CT imaging on 38 patients, who were divided into three groups based on the severity of their sleep apnea. During the PET/CT imaging, myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve–key indicators of coronary dysfunction–were automatically calculated using quantitative PET/CT software.The mean rest myocardial blood flow was similar among patients in the three groups of mild, moderate and severe OSA. The mean hyperemic myocardial blood flow was also similar, though researchers found that the blood flow decreased gradually as the severity of OSA increased. There were, however, significant differences in the mean coronary flow reserve among the three groups–those with severe OSA had a substantially lower coronary flow reserve. As we all know, impaired coronary flow reserve is an early sign of atherosclerosis. Our study suggests that patients with OSA, especially severe OSA, should receive PET myocardial perfusion imaging as early as possible to exclude coronary microcirculatory dysfunction.”Ruonan Wang, MD, The First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University in Taiyuan, China Source:Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaginglast_img read more

18
July
2019

Dementia patients hospitalized and involved in transitional care at higher rates

first_img In-hospital medications (77 percent of patients with dementia; 100 percent of patients without) Diagnoses (45 percent; 83 percent) Follow-up needs (42 percent; 81 percent) Medication regimens after discharge (47 percent; 80 percent) Related StoriesNew app created to help people reduce exposure to anticholinergic medicationsCaregiver depression linked to increased emergency department visits for patients with dementiaWhy women who work are less likely to develop dementiaPrusaczyk says the researchers confirmed these trends during qualitative interviews with providers at the hospital. “They didn’t necessarily set a high priority for these types of transitional care activities for patients with dementia or their caregivers,” she said.Aligning CareIn a separate study of the same patient cohort, published in Journal of Interprofessional Care, Prusaczyk’s group applied social mapping and network analyses to identify 14 unique types of actors engaged in discharge communications. Both clinicians and non-clinicians (e.g. social workers, case managers) contributed to discharge planning. Perhaps concerningly, primary care physicians did not participate, unless responding to queries initiated by case managers.”I’d like more research to understand why transition care teams are still struggling to communicate internally, but especially with primary care providers. This is obviously significant with an older patient with dementia,” Prusaczyk said.Prusaczyk, who is a former hospital social worker, acknowledges the “pressures and challenges” of managing care transitions across complex teams. Still, there are clear opportunities to better understand and serve the needs of patients with dementia.”My focus is identifying changes we can enact now. System-level changes are needed, but there are communication tools available today that improve retention–making sure patients have their glasses, using teach-back and more visual aids,” Prusaczyk said. “The change can happen if it is prioritized.”Beth Prusaczyk, Ph.D., MSW, is faculty at Washington University in St. Louis at the School of Medicine. She recently completed a postdoctoral fellowship in The Center for Clinical Quality and Implementation Research at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Her research uses implementation science and social network analysis to explore evidence-based practices and policies that will improve the health of older adults, especially those discharging from the hospital. Source:Vanderbilt University Medical CenterJournal reference:Prusaczyk, B. et al. (2019) Differences in Transitional Care Provided to Patients With and Without Dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20190530-02. Needs Going UnmetIn a new study published in the Journal of Gerontological Nursing, Prusaczyk and colleagues showed that older patients with dementia at one major teaching hospital were less often provided with transitional care steps including patient education, discharge planning, and documentation of medication history, as compared to patients without dementia.The study used a chart review of 210 patients aged 70 and older who were discharged from an inpatient stay other than the ED. The 126 patients with dementia–60 percent of those included–experienced significant differences in their transitional care. The researchers assumed charts reflected steps taken with patients or caregivers.Care teams collected medical histories from the patient, family member or other provider for only 60 percent of patients with dementia, compared to 86 percent of patients without. Patients with dementia also received discharge education far less frequently. This included education about: Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jul 17 2019Patients with dementia are hospitalized at higher rates and involved in transitional care more frequently than those who are cognitively unimpaired. Yet, current practices for managing transitional care–and the research informing them–have overlooked the needs of patients with dementia and their caregivers.”Patients with dementia have only been considered in a small portion of decades of transitional care studies,” said Beth Prusaczyk, Ph.D., a recent postdoctoral fellow in The Center for Clinical Quality and Implementation Research at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Prusaczyk is among the experts beginning to develop evidence-based practices to support patients with dementia in transitional care. The research has excluded patients with dementia for several reasons: because of IRB hurdles, and out of the concern that they can’t fully appreciate participation. There is also an erroneous assumption you can’t get good data.”Beth Prusaczyk, Ph.D., Center for Clinical Quality and Implementation Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Centerlast_img read more

18
July
2019

WVU researcher investigates how nursing homes can best meet obese residents healthcare

first_imgThe five-year project also involves John Engberg, of the RAND Corporation, and is led by John Harris, of the University of Pittsburgh.In a previous study, Castle, Engberg and Harris evaluated national- and county-level data to see if staffing levels at nursing homes across the United States are associated with residents’ obesity rates. Their findings, published in the Journal of Applied Gerontology, suggest that high concentrations of obese residents correlate to lower staffing levels.”We would have thought the opposite,” Castle said. “With residents who are obese, you would expect more intense amounts of labor to be used with them, such as moving them, getting them in and out of rooms and toileting. You would think that more nurse aides would be needed to help–not fewer.” This may be one indication that some nursing homes need best practices in this area, he added.Related StoriesStudy: Stress experienced by premature infants can carry on throughout their adult lifeOU Health Sciences Center awarded federal grant to enhance dementia care across OklahomaResearch reveals the parenting habits of our earliest extinct ancestorsBuilding on those findings, the researchers will conduct a national survey of nursing homes to identify the concerns that surround caring for obese residents and determine how nursing homes are responding. Strategies may include increasing staffing levels, buying specific equipment or making architectural changes–such as widening doorways. The team will also observe care delivery at approximately 50 nursing homes, where they will interview caregivers, administrators, residents and their family members to better understand the measures nursing homes are using and what they mean for obese residents.Using national data, Castle and his collaborators will then examine the relationship between different types of strategies and negative health outcomes–such as pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections and hospital readmissions–in obese residents.By identifying the commonalities among nursing homes where obese residents have exceptionally good outcomes, the researchers will develop a toolkit to help nursing homes accommodate the obese. “It might be staffing, but it might be some instrumentation that they have in the rooms. It might be wider doors, but it also might be training. We don’t know yet,” Castle said.Their discoveries may also help guide consumers toward nursing homes that are especially adept at caring for obese residents.”If you were the family member of an elder who was obese,” Castle said, “we might be able to tell you that if you go to a facility where 10, 15, 20 percent of the population is obese, they know how to look after someone like this.” Source:West Virginia UniversityJournal reference:Castle, N.G. et al. (2019) Organizational and Geographic Nursing Home Characteristics Associated With Increasing Prevalence of Resident Obesity in the United States. Journal of Applied Gerontology. doi.org/10.1177/0733464819843045. It’s a five-year initiative to tease out if nursing homes are prepared or not. The practical part of it is, we’re trying to get best practices from those nursing homes that seem to know what they’re doing with obese residents. If we can find out what they’re doing, we can disseminate that to those that haven’t had as much experience.”Nicholas Castle, who chairs the School of Public Health’s Department of Health Policy, Management and Leadership Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jul 2 2019About 30 percent of nursing home residents are obese. That can complicate their care. The facility may need to buy them special wheelchairs or motorized lifts. Nursing aides may struggle to help them shower. And doctors may grapple with how–or even whether–to restrict their diets.West Virginia University researcher Nicholas Castle is part of a team investigating how nursing homes can best meet obese residents’ healthcare needs. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality–a division of the Department of Health and Human Services–has awarded them nearly $2 million for the project.last_img read more

18
July
2019

Researchers develop the first model to capture crosstalk in social dilemmas

Previous games influence decisions in other independent games through crosstalk. Credit: IST Austria, 2018 Provided by Institute of Science and Technology Austria More information: Johannes G. Reiter et al, Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness, Nature Communications (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02721-8 Journal information: Nature Communications Citation: Researchers develop the first model to capture crosstalk in social dilemmas (2018, February 8) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-02-capture-crosstalk-social-dilemmas.html For researcher Christian Hilbe, this development was exactly what the framework needed. “When modeling repeated games, you always have certain phenomena that you want to describe. For me, it never felt as though previous models were complete. When we introduced crosstalk, it was as if everything snapped together—this is the model we should be using.”Human error has previously been considered in simulations of repeated social dilemmas. The difference here is that while these errors affected only the repeated game in which they occurred, crosstalk causes ripple effects across the entire population: “When crosstalk is introduced, suddenly you’re not playing against a single person—you’re playing against everyone you are connected to, the whole society,” explains co-author Krishnendu Chatterjee.This results in cooperative and defective behavior spreading much more easily—even a single defective player can cause the complete breakdown of cooperation in a society, if the other players are not sufficiently forgiving. But crosstalk also necessitates strategies with the “correct” level of forgiveness: too harsh, and you end up with a society where no one cooperates; too generous, and defection can also spread as players learn to take advantage of other players. Crosstalk also hinders the evolution of cooperation: The authors implemented an evolutionary model, and found that crosstalk decreases the number of different starting societies that end up in stable cooperative states.Their paper, published today in Nature Communications, presents an interesting message for our current society. Johannes Reiter says, “The presence of crosstalk means that players must be more forgiving, especially in a network that is highly connected. A harsh strategy for cooperation, such as tit-for-tat, is particularly disastrous in this environment.” Previous interactions can affect unrelated future decisions: In a line at a coffee shop, a stranger pays for the coffee of the man behind her, who then pays for the next stranger’s coffee. He’s had no interaction with other customers, and no reason to do them a favor, but he does it anyway. This is an example of crosstalk, in which previous interactions affect unrelated future decisions. And though this notion might seem natural, it had never before been incorporated into simulations of groups engaging in repeated social dilemmas. A new framework developed by computer scientists at IST Austria and their collaborators at Harvard, Yale and Stanford has changed that, and enables the analysis of the effects of crosstalk between games. Explore further Evolution of cooperation through longer memory The prisoner’s dilemma is a classic example of a social dilemma—that is, a situation in which both people would be better off if they cooperated than if they both defected, but there is still some incentive to defect. When social dilemmas are repeated, people subconsciously develop a strategy that dictates when they should cooperate and when they should defect. Researchers use computer simulations to study repeated social dilemmas or “games” by assigning virtual players different strategies, and have established which strategies lead to the development of cooperation, and how stable the resulting cooperative situations are. Successful strategies include, for instance, “tit-for-tat” (I start by cooperating, and then I’ll do whatever you did last) or “win-stay, lose-shift” (I start with cooperation, then I’ll keep doing what I’m doing until I lose).However, in all of these previous studies, scientists have assumed that a player is only interacting with one other player (i.e. Bob only ever plays Alice), or that a player’s decisions in one game are completely independent of their decisions in another game (i.e. Bob’s games with Alice have no effect on his games with Caroline). These assumptions do not necessarily apply to real-life social dilemmas, however. Humans are often involved in many simultaneous games, and interactions with other players spill over into other games. In other words, these games are subject to crosstalk.Now, a team of researchers has developed a new framework to address this limitation in the theory, and allow for the quantitative evaluation of the effects of crosstalk on cooperation dynamics in a population. The team includes experts in evolutionary dynamics, game theory, psychology and economics, who collaborated to create the new model.In a given simulation, each virtual player has a memory of the games played with each of the other players. In previous models, a player would review their past with their current opponent, and decide on a course of action based on this past and their game strategy. In the new model, there is some chance that these memories will be replaced with the memories corresponding to a third player. This method of encoding crosstalk is general, and accounts for all the many varieties of crosstalk, whether simple human error (mixing people up), paying it forward (remembering good experiences), or some other type. Moreover, it can be applied to any societal network—including groups in which everyone knows everyone else, circles, or a random mess of connections. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. read more

18
July
2019

Wide learning AI technology enables highly precise learning even from imbalanced data

first_imgThis technology treats all combination patterns of data items as hypotheses, and then determines the degree of importance of each hypothesis based on the hit rate for the label category. For example, when analyzing trends in who purchases certain products, the system combines all sorts of patterns from the data items for those who did or did not make purchases (the category label), such as single women between 20-34 who have driver licenses, and then analyzes how many hits it gets in the data of those who actually made purchases when these combination patterns are taken as hypotheses. The hypotheses that achieve a hit rate above a certain level are defined as important hypotheses, called “knowledge chunks”. This means that even when target data is insufficient, the system can extract all hypotheses worth looking into, which may also contribute to the discovery of previously unconsidered explanations.2. Adjusts the degree of impact of knowledge chunks to build an accurate classification modelThe system builds a classification model based on multiple extracted knowledge chunks and on the target label. In this process, if the items making up a knowledge chunk frequently overlap with the items making up other knowledge chunks, the system controls their degree of impact so as to reduce the weight of their influence on the classification model. In this way, the system can train a model capable of accurate classifications even when the target label or the data marked as correct is imbalanced. For example, in a case where men who did not make a purchase make up the vast majority of an item purchase dataset, if the AI is trained without controlling the degree of impact, then the knowledge chunk that includes whether or not a person has a license, independent of gender, will not have much influence on the classification. With this newly developed method, the degree of impact of knowledge chunks including male as a factor is limited due to the overlap of this item, while the impact of the smaller number of knowledge chunks that include whether a person has a license becomes relatively larger in training, building a model that can correctly categorize both men and possession of a license.Fujitsu Laboratories conducted a trial of this technology, applying it to data in areas such as digital marketing and healthcare. In a test using benchmark data in the marketing and healthcare areas from the UC Irvine Machine Learning Repository, this technology improved accuracy by about 10-20% compared to deep learning. It successfully reduced the probability that the system would overlook customers likely to subscribe to a service or patients with a condition by about 20-50%. In the marketing data, of the approximately 5,000 customer data entries used in the test, only about 230 were for purchasing customers, making for an imbalanced set. This technology reduced the number of potential customers excluded from sales promotions from 120, the result of deep learning analysis, to 74. Moreover, as the knowledge chunks that form the basis for this technology have a logical expression format, the ability to explain the reasoning behind a judgement is also useful in implementing this technology in society. Even when it is determined that corrections to a model are necessary, based on results from new data, it is possible to make more appropriate revisions, because users can understand the reasons for results.Fujitsu Laboratories will continue to apply this technology to tasks that demand the reasoning behind AI judgements, such as in financial transactions and medical diagnoses, and to tasks that handle low frequency phenomena, such as fraud and equipment breakdowns, with the goal of commercializing it as a new machine learning technology supporting Fujitsu Limited’s Fujitsu Human Centric AI Zinrai in fiscal 2019. Fujitsu Laboratories will also make effective use of this technology’s characteristic capability for explanation, continuing research and development into topics such as improved support for making judgements and decisions in tasks to which it is applied, and into the overall system design, including collaboration with humans. Figure 2: When making a classification model, the knowledge chunks impact adjustment. Credit: Fujitsu Explore further Citation: “Wide learning” AI technology enables highly precise learning even from imbalanced data sets (2018, September 20) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-wide-ai-technology-enables-highly.html Fujitsu develops new deep learning technology to analyze time-series data with high precision Provided by Fujitsu In recent years, AI technology has begun to be used in a variety of fields, including healthcare, marketing, and finance. Expectations are rising for the use of AI decision-making in support of operations and automating tasks in these areas. One challenge that remains to realizing the potential of these technologies, however, is that the data may be imbalanced. Specifically, depending on the industry it can be difficult to obtain sufficient data for training AI on the targets on which it is to make judgements. This, in effect, leaves many of these technologies unable to produce results with sufficient accuracy for practical use. Furthermore, a major reason why AI deployment lacks progress is that even when an AI provides sufficiently accurate recognition or classification performance, experts and even the developers themselves often cannot explain why the AI produced a certain answer, and if they cannot fulfill their responsibility to explain the results to the front lines of industry then AI cannot be deployed.AI technologies based on deep learning conventionally make highly accurate judgements by being trained on large volumes of data, including ample target data to be judged. In real world scenarios, however, there are many cases in which the data is insufficient, with extremely little target data. In these cases, when faced with unknown data, it becomes difficult for AI technology to deliver highly accurate judgements. Moreover, the machine learning model for existing AI based on deep learning is a black box model that cannot explain the reasons behind the judgements the AI makes, creating a problem with transparency. As such, moving forward it will be necessary to develop new AI technology that realizes highly accurate judgements from imbalanced data, and that is also transparent in order to solve various issues in society.Bearing these challenges in mind, Fujitsu Laboratories has now developed Wide Learning, a machine learning technology capable of making highly accurate judgements even in cases where the data is imbalanced. The features of Wide Learning technology include the following two points. Figure 1: Hypothesis listing and knowledge chunk extraction. Credit: Fujitsu 1. Creates combinations of data items to extract large volumes of hypotheses Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd. today announced the development of “Wide Learning,” a machine learning technology capable of accurate judgements even when operators cannot obtain the volume of data necessary for training. AI is now often used to leverage data in a variety of fields, but the accuracy of AI may be impacted in cases where the volume of data to be analyzed is small or imbalanced. Fujitsu’s Wide Learning technology enables judgements to be reached more accurately than was previously possible, and learning is achieved uniformly, no matter which hypothesis is examined, even when the data is imbalanced. It achieves this by first extracting hypotheses with a high degree of importance, having made a large set of hypotheses formed by all of the combinations of data items, and then by controlling for the degree of impact of each respective hypothesis based on the overlapping relationships of the hypotheses. Moreover, because the hypotheses are recorded as logical expressions, humans can also understand the reasoning behind a judgement. Fujitsu’s new Wide Learning technology allows for the use of AI even in areas such as healthcare and marketing, where the data needed to make judgements is scarce, supporting operations and promoting the automation of work processes using AI. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

18
July
2019

Uber aiming for stock market debut value of up to 90 bn

first_imgUber is aiming to make its stock market debut at a share price that would value the ride-share startup at between $80 billion to $90 billion © 2019 AFP Uber is aiming to make its stock market debut at a share price that would value the leading ride-share startup between $80 billion and $90 billion, Bloomberg reported on Thursday. Uber sets IPO in motion, seeks to ‘ignite opportunity’ Uber’s keenly-anticipated initial public offering of shares is expected next month, and Bloomberg cited unnamed sources as saying it is considering pricing shares between $44 and $50.The price set for the IPO will likely be influenced by interest expressed by potential investors when Uber pitches its promise on a “road show” that routinely precedes the event.The price range reported on Thursday would value the company at between $80 billion and $90 billion, less than a $100 billion Uber valuation that had been anticipated by some sources.Uber filed documents on April 11 for its much-anticipated public share offering, which is expected to be the largest in the tech sector in years and a bellwether for other venture-backed startups eying Wall Street listing.The filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission contained no specific pricing or timing for the market debut for Uber, which according to media reports was expected to raise some $10 billion.The filing is also expected to include news of a roughly $500 million investment in Uber by PayPal Holdings Inc., the Wall Street Journal reported, citing people familiar with the matter.The mobile-payments company, which already helps the ride-hailing firm process fares, will invest in Uber through a private placement at the IPO price, it said.Uber offers ridesharing in some 700 cities but has bolder ambitions to reshape how people and goods are transported with operations such as meal deliveries, freight, and electric bikes and scooters.Uber may have throttled back its IPO ambitions due to a lackluster debut by US rival Lyft.Lyft shares were priced at $72 for the company’s IPO in March, but were $56.34 at the close of trading Thursday on the Nasdaq exchange.center_img Explore further Citation: Uber aiming for stock market debut value of up to $90 bn: report (2019, April 26) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-uber-aiming-stock-debut-bn.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

18
July
2019

Huawei planning major job cuts in US WSJ

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The layoffs are expected at Huawei’s US-based research and development arm, Futurewei Technologies, the paper reported, citing unnamed people familiar with the situation.The unit currently employs 850 people at several labs in the United States, but hundreds of them could be laid off, the report said. Some of the company’s Chinese employees were given the option of keeping their jobs and returning home to work.The administration of US President Donald Trump has put Huawei on its so-called entity list, which meant US companies needed a license to supply US technology to the Chinese firm.Huawei—a leader in next-generation 5G wireless technology—remained barred from developing 5G networks in the United States, and the Trump administration is trying to convince its allies to do the same. Last week, Monaco became the first European country to roll out a 5G network based on Huawei technology.Washington accuses Huawei of working directly with the Chinese government, a claim the company denies.After Trump met with Chinese President Xi Jinping on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Osaka last month, Huawei won a bit of a reprieve when Trump said he would ease the punitive measures so long as the equipment sold to the Chinese company did not pose any risk to national security. Chinese telecoms giant Huawei, which is subject to US sanctions over concerns about its ties to the government in Beijing, is planning to make major job cuts at its US operations, The Wall Street Journal reported Sunday. Explore further Trump hints at softer stance on China’s Huaweicenter_img © 2019 AFP Citation: Huawei planning major job cuts in US: WSJ (2019, July 14) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-huawei-major-job-wsj.html Chinese telecoms firm Huawei has been a sticking point in trade talks between the United States and Chinalast_img read more

18
July
2019

Anglo Americans second quarter output rises 2 on track to hit 2019

first_imgLONDON (Reuters) – Anglo American (AAL.L) on Thursday posted a 2% rise in second quarter output and reaffirmed full-year production targets, boosted by a restart of operations at its Brazilian iron ore mine and higher volumes of coking coal. FILE PHOTO: A worker attends to machinery at a smelter plant at Anglo American Platinum’s Unki mine in Shurugwi, Zimbabwe, May 16, 2019. REUTERS/Philimon BulawayoPrices of iron ore, used with coking coal to make steel, have outperformed other base metals and hit five-year highs after a Vale (VALE3.SA) dam disaster in Brazil led to production shut-ins. Anglo American’s iron ore production was helped by the ramp-up of the Minas Rio mine in Brazil and a strong performance from coking coal after plant upgrade work in the first quarter, helping offset the impact of reduced diamond production. “We remain broadly on track overall to deliver this full year’s production targets,” CEO Mark Cutifani said in a statement. Diamond production at the company’s De Beers unit fell 14% as work continues at its Venetia mine in South Africa to switch to underground mining from open pit and against a backdrop of weaker demand and lower prices. The company revised its diamond production forecast down to about 31 million carats, at the lower end of its previous 31-33 million carats range, citing weaker trading conditions. The weaker market was partly because of “caution due to macro-economic uncertainty, including the U.S.-China trade tensions”, it said, adding De Beers would continue to produce in response to demand for the year. Copper production increased by 1% and platinum rose 3% year on year. Minas Rio’s iron ore production climbed to 5.9 million tonnes. Anglo American restarted operations there in December after receiving regulatory approval to step up production following a prolonged outage because of a leak. Anglo American is still waiting for one more permit needed for work on a tailings dam, which it says is expected before the end of the year. Metallurgical, or coking, coal production increased by 11% following site improvements, while thermal coal, used for power, fell 8% because of a lack of water. In a note, analysts at Bernstein reiterated their outperform rating for Anglo American but said the results were mixed. Anglo American’s share price slipped 1% by 0820 GMT. The stock has risen by nearly 25% since the start of the year. Reporting by Yadarisa Shabong in Bengaluru and Barbara Lewis in London; editing by Deepa BabingtonOur Standards:The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.last_img read more

18
July
2019

These Unsung Heroes of the Apollo 11 Mission Made the First Steps

first_img Timothy Swindle, Professor of Planetary Sciences and Geosciences, University of Arizona This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoFinance DailySeniors With No Life Insurance May Get Up To $250,000 If They Do This…Finance DailyUndoAncestryThe Story Behind Your Last Name Will Surprise YouAncestryUndoFinance101Oprah’s Mansion Costs $90 Million, And This Is What It Looks LikeFinance101Undo At an International Astronomical Union meeting in 1955, noted astronomer Gerard Kuiper asked for suggestions and collaborators on a project to make a map of the Moon. At the time, the best lunar atlases had hand-drawn images, and Kuiper wanted to use state-of-the-art telescopes to make a photographic atlas. Only one person responded. That was indicative of the astronomical community’s general attitude toward the Moon. After all, telescopes were designed to look at distant objects, and the Moon is rather close, and boring as well, since its appearance doesn’t change. Furthermore, Kuiper wanted to make a map, and that’s the sort of thing that geologists, not astronomers, do.Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65939-unsung-heroes-apollo-11-moon-landing.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35  Kuiper proceeded, though, and by 1960, he had moved his small operation to the University of Arizona in Tucson. There he could take advantage of the region’s mountaintops and clear skies, and the university’s willingness to move into a field of study that defied traditional departmental boundaries. The next year, President John F. Kennedy announced that a national goal for the decade was to send a man to the Moon and back safely. Suddenly, the niche pursuit of making maps of the Moon had turned into a national priority. For the next several years, Kuiper’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory produced progressively better images of the Moon, using telescopes built for the purpose. Later they used images from robotic spacecraft to the Moon to produce a series of increasingly sophisticated atlases of the lunar surface. As a child, I was focused on the accomplishments of the astronauts, starting with the day in 1961 that the principal burst into my kindergarten classroom to tell us that Alan Shepard had been launched into space, and culminating in the Apollo 11 landing in 1969. Like most of us who watched all those missions, I didn’t really expect to go into space science or aerospace engineering. But when I got the chance to study Apollo samples in graduate school, it’s not surprising that I gravitated to them. I eventually spent my career studying rocks from space. Similarly, I didn’t think much about the groundwork that went into mapping the Moon until I ended up at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. Once I started learning the stories and talking to those involved, though, I came to appreciate the number of extraordinary things that were done in that era as a result of the political race to the Moon. Looking at the Moon from another direction The Lunar and Planetary Laboratory’s first lunar atlases simply consisted of the best images from a telescope. But the group realized they could do better than this. The Moon always keeps the same face toward the Earth. But even on the side facing the Earth, the areas away from the center always appear distorted. To correct for this, the group made a white globe three feet in diameter, then projected a high-quality telescopic image onto it from down the hallway. By moving around the globe, the surface features then appeared as they would from overhead. Near the edges of the visible portion of the Moon, the shapes of features shifted, with ovals becoming circles and squiggly lines becoming detailed structures. Although the idea had been suggested before, the “Rectified Lunar Atlas” was probably the best use ever made of the technique. Furthermore, the process yielded scientifically valuable insights. Graduate student William Hartmann, while moving around the globe to take the “rectified” images, noticed that on one edge of the Moon, there was a feature — now known as Mare Orientale — that looked a lot like many of the basins that were well known to telescopic observers. But it had some crucial differences. For one thing, it had fewer later impact craters within it, suggesting it was younger and better preserved. Furthermore, it had a distinct bull’s-eye appearance, with concentric mountain ranges forming the rings. Hartmann realized that this might have been what all those basins had once looked like, before later impact craters and lava flows smeared out detailed features. And the idea of huge impacts ultimately led Hartmann and others to suggest that the Moon formed as a result of a giant impact on Earth, an idea that is still the basis of the leading theories of the origin of the Moon. Pinpoint landing But one of the most impressive feats of converting those telescopic images into crucial information for Apollo came from Ewen Whitaker, an unassuming Englishman who had been the only one to respond to Kuiper’s solicitation in 1955. Whitaker moved to America to join Kuiper’s group and moved to Arizona with him. When the robotic Surveyor 1 spacecraft became the first American mission to make a soft landing on the Moon in 1966, the mission team analyzed the photographs returned and reported where they thought they had landed. But they were wrong. Whitaker used the best telescopic image and compared what hills should be visible in what direction, and suggested the correct location a few miles away. After Apollo 11 yielded the first successful human landing on the Moon, NASA wanted to use Apollo 12 to prove that it was possible to precisely target a specific location, based just on latitude and longitude. But you have to know the latitude and longitude of some location with precision. NASA tasked Whitaker with finding exactly where another unmanned Surveyor mission, Surveyor 3, had landed. Whitaker gave his best estimate, and Apollo 12 aimed for it. The astronauts could not see Surveyor 3 on the way in, because it was in shadow. When they looked around after they landed, they found that they were within walking distance, after a journey of 240,000 miles. The maps of the Moon that were created at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory have long since been surpassed, and those best-ever photographs of the lunar surface aren’t nearly as good as those of taken by more recent orbiters. But the organization that Kuiper started continues to explore. For more than a decade, spacecraft landing on Mars have utilized images taken from orbit by HiRISE (High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment), operated out of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, to select their landing sites. At the moment, the OSIRIS-REx robotic spacecraft, also directed out of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, is maneuvering close to the asteroid Bennu, sometimes within a few hundred meters of the surface, making maps in search of a place to grab a sample to bring back to Earth. After that sample is returned, no doubt scientists will analyze it for decades in the future, just as we are still analyzing the samples returned by the Apollo missions. It is the touchdowns and the samples that we remember, but it is the maps that come first.last_img read more

18
July
2019

What Is Homeostasis

first_img Homeostatic points can be adaptive. For example, in anticipation of a meal, the body secretes extra insulin, ghrelin and other hormones to prepare the body for the incoming flood of calories, rather than wrestling to control blood sugar and energy stores in its wake. Credit: Shutterstock Check out helpful graphics about homeostasis from the Khan Academy. Learn how homeostasis impacts human physiology with Crash Course. Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal state that persists despite changes in the world outside. All living organisms, from plants to puppies to people, must regulate their internal environment to process energy and ultimately survive. If your blood pressure skyrockets or body temperature plummets, for example, your organ systems may struggle to do their jobs and eventually fail. Why homeostasis is important Physiologist Walter Cannon coined the term “homeostasis” in the 1920s, expanding on previous work by late physiologist Claude Bernard. In the 1870s, Bernard described how complex organisms must maintain balance in their internal environment, or “milieu intérieur,” in order to lead a “free and independent life” in the world beyond. Cannon honed the concept, and introduced homeostasis to popular audiences through his book, “The Wisdom of the Body” (The British Medical Journal, 1932). [The 7 Biggest Mysteries of the Human Body] Hailed as a core tenet of physiology, Cannon’s basic definition of homeostasis remains in use today. The term derives from Greek roots meaning “similar” and “a state of stability.” The prefix “homeo” stresses that homeostasis doesn’t work like a thermostat or cruise control in a car, fixed at one precise temperature or speed. Instead, homeostasis holds important physiological factors within an acceptable range of values, according to a review in the journal Appetite.Advertisement The human body, for example, regulates its internal concentrations of hydrogen, calcium, potassium and sodium, charged particles that cells rely on for normal function. Homeostatic processes also maintain water, oxygen, pH and blood sugar levels, as well as core body temperature, according to a 2015 review in Advances in Physiology Education. In healthy organisms, homeostatic processes unfold constantly and automatically, according to Scientific American. Multiple systems often work in tandem to hold steady a single physiological factor, like body temperature. If these measures falter or fail, an organism may succumb to disease, or even death. Toucan’s Bill Doubles as RadiatorHeat-sensing video shows how the toucan’s bill radiates heat to reduce the bird’s body temperature when asleep.Volume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Better Bug Sprays?01:33 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65938-homeostasis.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:4800:48Your Recommended Playlist01:33Better Bug Sprays?01:08Why Do French Fries Taste So Bad When They’re Cold?04:24Sperm Whale Befriends Underwater Robot00:29Robot Jumps Like a Grasshopper, Rolls Like a Ball01:09Robots to the Rescue02:27Robotic Arms关闭  How homeostasis is maintained Many homeostatic systems listen for distress signals from the body to know when key variables fall out of their appropriate range. The nervous system detects these deviations and reports back to a control center, often based in the brain. The control center then directs muscles, organs and glands to correct for the disturbance. The continual loop of disturbance and adjustment is known as “negative feedback,” according to the online textbook Anatomy and Physiology. For example, the human body maintains a core temperature of about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius). When overheated, thermosensors in the skin and brain sound an alarm, initiating a chain reaction that directs the body to sweat and flush. When chilled, the body responds by shivering, and reducing blood circulation to the skin. Similarly, when sodium levels spike, the body signals the kidneys to conserve water and expel excess salt in concentrated urine, according to two NIH-funded studies. Animals will also adjust their behavior in response to negative feedback. For example, when overheated, we may shed a layer of clothing, move into the shade, or drink a cold glass of water. Modern models of homeostasis The concept of negative feedback dates back to Cannon’s description of homeostasis in the 1920s, and was the first explanation of how homeostasis works. But in recent decades, many scientists argue that organisms are able to anticipate potential disruptions to homeostasis, rather than only reacting to them after the fact. This alternate model of homeostasis, known as allostasis, implies that the ideal set point for a particular variable can shift in response to transient environmental changes, according to a 2015 article in Psychological Review. The point may shift under the influence of circadian rhythms, menstrual cycles or daily fluctuations in body temperature. Set points may also change in response to physiological phenomena, like fever, or to compensate for multiple homeostatic processes taking place at the same time, according to a 2015 review in Advances in Physiology Education. “The set points themselves aren’t fixed but can show adaptive plasticity,” said Art Woods, a biologist at the University of Montana in Missoula. “This model allows for anticipatory responses to upcoming potential disturbances to set points.” For example, in anticipation of a meal, the body secretes extra insulin, ghrelin and other hormones, according to a 2007 review in Appetite. This preemptive measure readies the body for the incoming flood of calories, rather than wrestling to control blood sugar and energy stores in its wake. The ability to shift set points allows animals to adapt to short-term stressors, but they may fail in the face of long-term challenges, such as climate change. “Activating homeostatic response systems can be fine for short periods of time,” Woods said. But they’re not designed to last for long. “Homeostatic systems can fail catastrophically if they are pushed too far; so, although systems may be able to handle near-term novel climates, they may not be able to handle larger changes over longer periods of time.” Keeping information flowing Homeostatic systems may have primarily evolved to help organisms maintain optimal function in different environments and situations. But, according to a 2013 essay in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution, some scientists theorize that homeostasis primarily provides a “quiet background” for cells, tissues and organs to communicate with each other. The theory posits that homeostasis makes it easier for organisms to extract important information from the environment and shuttle signals between body parts. Regardless of its evolutionary purpose, homeostasis has shaped research in the life sciences for nearly a century. Though mostly discussed in the context of animal physiology, homeostatic processes also enable plants to manage energy stores, nourish cells and respond to environmental challenges. Beyond biology, the social sciences, cybernetics, computer science and engineering all use homeostasis as a framework to understand how people and machines maintain stability despite disruptions. Additional resources:by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeDugiFeedThis Is What Will Happen When You Eat Bananas Every DayDugiFeedUndoBrilliant Future10 Worst Paying College MajorsBrilliant FutureUndoMy Daily DiscoveryHow To Keep Your Photos And Videos SafeMy Daily DiscoveryUndoThe SideHairstyles That Make You Look Younger Than EverThe SideUndoeasyrecipes20 Toughest Restaurants Worldwide To Get A Reservation (But Worth The Wait)easyrecipesUndoYour Health7 Natural Pain Relief TechniquesYour HealthUndo Watch this video from the Amoeba Sisters to learn more about negative feedback.last_img read more

17
July
2019

DMK backs Stalin as party chiefDMK backs Stalin as party chief

first_imgAugust 14, 2018 Tamil Nadu COMMENTS DMK Working President MK Stalin arrives to attend the party’s Executive Committee meeting, in Chennai on Tuesday   –  BIJOY GHOSH SHARE SHARE EMAIL Published on Amid indications of a possible succession war within the party, the DMK on Tuesday rallied behind its Working President, MK Stalin, the son of late party chief M Karunanidhi, saying he would take over its leadership soon.Duraimurugan, the party’s Principal Secretary and Karunanidhi’s long-time aide, said Stalin had all the skills to lead the party. He was speaking at an “urgent” meeting of the party’s Executive Committee here to mourn the death of Karunanidhi, who passed away on August 7.“Dear Thalapathi (commander), who is soon to become (DMK) President, we are prepared to follow your orders…lead us,” the senior leader said, addressing Stalin, as the DMK workers cheered.“You have all the skills..you have the skills of Anna (DMK founder CN Annadurai), Kalaignar (Karunanidhi) and yourself. There is nobody in Tamil Nadu who can defeat you,” he said.Party workers raised slogans hailing Stalin soon after Duraimurugan said the Working President would graduate to the party’s leadership role.Duraimurugan’s statement comes amid indications of a possible succession war in the Dravidian party, with expelled DMK leader and Karunanidhi’s elder son, MK Alagiri, claiming that the true supporters of his father were with him.Alagiri, estranged from the family, had on Monday claimed that all loyal party workers were with him and that the DMK would “dig its own grave” if it does not take him back. Party support comes a day after brother Alagiri claimed Karunanidhi’s legacy COMMENT SHARE state politicslast_img read more

17
July
2019

Four new Supreme Court judges administered oath of office

first_imgThe Supreme Court of India COMMENT May 24, 2019 The apex court reached its full strength of judges for the first time since 2008 when the Parliament had increased the number of judges. SHARE SHARE EMAIL Published oncenter_img Supreme Court of India Four new judges of the Supreme Court were on Friday administered the oath of office by Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi.With the swearing in of the four judges, the number of judges in the Supreme Court stands at 31, the full sanctioned strength of the top court.Justice BR Gavai, Justice Surya Kant, Justice Aniruddha Bose and Justice AS Bopanna were administered oath of office by the CJI in Court No.1 in the presence of several other sitting apex court judges. The apex court, which was functioning with 27 judges including the CJI, has now reached its full strength of judges for the first time since 2008 when the Parliament had increased the number of judges from 26 to 31.On Wednesday, President Ram Nath Kovind had issued warrants of appointment of Justices Gavai, Kant, Bose and Bopanna as apex court judges. The names of Justices Bose and Bopanna were earlier returned by the Centre to the Supreme Court collegium citing seniority and representation of regions as the reasons.In its May 8 resolution, the five-member collegium had reiterated its recommendation to elevate Justices Bose and Bopanna, observing that nothing adverse has been found regarding their competence, conduct or integrity. The collegium, headed by the CJI, had on May 8 also recommended the names of Justices Gavai and Kant for elevation to the apex court.Justice Gavai, who was a judge of the Bombay High Court, will become the CJI for a little over six months in 2025 and he will be the second Chief Justice of India belonging to the Scheduled Caste community after Justice (retd) K G Balakrishnan.Justice Kant, who was till now the chief justice of the Himachal Pradesh High Court, will succeed Justice Gavai as the CJI in November 2025 and he will remain in office till February 2027.Justice Bose, who was till now the chief justice of the Jharkhand High Court, is at number 12 in the all-India seniority of high court judges.Justice Bopanna, whose parent high court is Karnataka, was till now the Chief Justice of the Gauhati High Court and is at number 36 in the all-India seniority. SHARE COMMENTSlast_img read more

16
July
2019

Carry documents with you

first_img Nation 04 Jul 2019 Foreign students being victimised Related News Reports by CHRISTINA CHIN, JUSTIN ZACK and ASHLEY TANG PETALING JAYA: Foreign students must have either their passports or iKad with them or risk being detain­ed, says Immigration Department director-general Datuk Khairul Dzaimee Daud (pic).Photos of these documents will not be accepted, he said in response to complaints by foreign students of being victimised by authorities.“The iKad is a legal document which has been gazetted. “All enforcement agencies including the police have been informed of this,” he said, adding that legitimate foreign students, who have been detained despite showing their iKad, should report the matter to the department.Khairul Dzaimee also dispelled claims that those detained were treated like “animals” without pro­per food and having to put up in dirty conditions.Allegations of extortion would be investigated as well. “We will take action if the allegation is true. There will be no compromise on inte­grity issues,” he told The Star.Every officer would carry an Immigration ID and students have the right to ask to see it, he said.He said depending on the location and target of the operation, Immi­­gration officers may not be in uniform.Malaysian Association of Private Colleges and Universities (Mapcu) president Datuk Dr Parmjit Singh said a 30-year-old student from Botswana was picked up recently. A scholar funded by the Botswa­na government, she arrived in Ma­­laysia on June 28 and was roun­ded up in an operation on July 5. Her passport was with the Edu­ca­tion Malaysia Global Services (EMGS), a wholly-owned company of the Education Ministry, for visa endorsement and her iKad had yet to be issued.“She was at a bus stop at about 7pm when a woman in plainclothes asked for her passport. “Because she couldn’t produce the passport, she was taken away in a truck with many others in it. The truck went to numerous locations before arriving at the police station in KL two hours later. “She was traumatised throughout this journey. No one told her what was going on.”He said student was only released about seven hours later despite her university handing over all the relevant documents. Mapcu is hoping to meet with enforcement authorities to address the issue of genuine foreign students being unreasonably harassed by enforcement, he said.“What happens when the passport has been sent for the visa to be stamped?“This can take up to two weeks and what if the iKad has not been issued yet? Even at this stage after a week, her passport has still not been returned to her after the visa endorsement.“All the students have is a photocopy of their passport and receipt from EMGS stating the passport has been submitted to them,” he said. The question remains as to why this could not be verified on the spot as the authorities have full access to the EMGS database, which clearly outlines the stage of the application with exact dates, he said. “Any smartphone can be used to access this information through the passport number and the nationality.” {{category}} {{time}} {{title}}center_img Related News Nation 04 Jul 2019 Lodge police report if you are a victim, students told World 11 Jun 2019 Botswana’s High Court decriminalises homosexualitylast_img read more

16
July
2019

Penang Hill bungalows for rent soon

first_img GEORGE TOWN: Holidaymakers with a penchant for old world charm can head to Penang Hill where two heritage buildings will be available for rent by the end of October. Hillside Bungalow and Tulip House – built in 1900 and the 1920s respectively by the British – are being renovated under the Hillside Retreat Penang project. Penang Hill Corporation (PHC) general manager Cheok Lay Leng said Hillside Retreat Penang could accommodate up to 80 people. “Restoration on Hillside Bungalow and Tulip House started in 2017 and is expected to be completed in October,” he said. “The colonial buildings will be made available to the public once they are ready and an official launch date will be announced soon.“Hillside Bungalow, which is along the Upper Tunnel Road, comprises four boutique rooms, four bunk rooms and an open area that can accommodate up to 16 four-person tents for camping.“Tulip House, located below the main Summit Road, has two rooms.“Besides a design that blends well with the environment, the extensive amenities include living and dining areas, toilets and shower rooms, storage for refuse and recycle mate­rial, a rain harvesting system and many other eco-friendly features,” Cheok told reporters here yesterday. Chief Minister Chow Kon Yeow, who was also present, said the public-private partnership project was in support of PHC’s vision to make Penang Hill a resort of choice in both Malaysia and the region.“The project will provide more opportunities for tourists who are keen on our environment and heritage to explore such hidden gems in different parts of Penang Hill,” he said.Hillside Retreat Penang, said Chow, would be operated by Pembinaan YSBT (M) Sdn Bhd, which was selected through a request for proposal called in September 2017.The rental rate for the facilities has yet to be announced.One of the oldest bungalows on Penang Hill, Hillside Bungalow is classified as a Category II heritage building in the Penang Hill Local Plan 1998 and Penang Hill Special Area Plan 2016.Once used as a rest house for British government officers, it was turned into a rest house for civil servants after independence before being left vacant.The British built Tulip House in the 1920s for workers. The place was used as government quarters after independence before being handed over to PHC after 2011 and renovated in 2016. Related News Metro News 26 Apr 2019 New rest area at Penang Hill Related News Nation 07 Jul 2019 More than 1,500 turn up to celebrate George Town World Heritage Day Metro News 20 May 2019 Orphans delighted with buka puasa treat at Penang Hill Old world charm: Hillside Bungalow is one of the oldest bungalows on Penang Hill that is being restored. {{category}} {{time}} {{title}}last_img read more

28
February
2019

145 pounds with bro

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defense spending bill that ultimately passed the House and also includes a provision to fund President Donald Trump’s promised wall along the US border with Mexico The bill received scant Democratic supportThe Senate passed its own defense spending bill Monday and lawmakers will now go about the business of deciding on how much to appropriateThe twin 30-second ads stress the threat of terrorism and also include the North Korean nuclear threat The ads conclude by urging voters to contact Nolan’s office to voice their displeasure“Voting for funding to combat the war on terror seems like common sense particularly when America has been subject to several domestic acts of terror” said NRCC spokeswoman Maddie Anderson “However Rick Nolan put (minority leader) Nancy Pelosi over the safety of Minnesotans and voted no”Nolan spokesman Steve Johnson said the congressman is “deeply committed to providing all of the resources necessary to defend the American people and keep us safe There is nothing partisan or political about that”The ad buy is digital-only and targets nine other districts throughout the country including Minnesota’s 7th District represented by Democrat Collin Peterson and 1st District represented by Democrat Tim Walz who has said he will run for governor in 2018Nolan is serving his third term representing the 8th District having defeated Republican challenger Stewart Mills by narrow margins in each of the past two elections Last November Nolan won even as Trump scored a decisive Republican win in the district in the presidential raceWhile Mills remains undecided about a 2018 bid Duluth police lieutenant and St Louis County Commissioner Pete Stauber already is campaigning in an effort to secure the Republican nominationWith the ads the NRCC is making no secret of its intent to accelerate the start of the election cycle something Nolan has been critical of throughout his time in office In June Nolan reintroduced a suite of legislation he has been pressing for 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